Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Papyrus of Ani in the British Museum ; the Egyptian Text with Interlinear Transliteration and Translation, a Running Translation. The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Papyrus of Ani in the British Museum copy of the Egyptian hieroglyphs, an interlinear transliteration of their sounds (as. Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Papyrus of Ani in the British Museum ; the Egyptian Text with Interlinear Transliteration and Translation, a Running Translation.
Evans-Wentz chose this title because of the parallels he found with the Egyptian Book of the Dead. Indeed, he warns repeatedly of the dangers for western man in the wholesale adoption of eastern religious traditions such as yoga.
They construed the effect of LSD as a "stripping away" of ego-defenses, finding parallels between the stages of death and rebirth in the Tibetan Book of the Dead , and the stages of psychological "death" and "rebirth" which Leary had identified during his research.
Symbolically he must die to his past, and to his old ego, before he can take his place in the new spiritual life into which he has been initiated.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History Timeline Outline Culture Index of articles. What happens when we die?
Interviews with Tibetan Lamas, American scholars, and practicing Buddhists bring this powerful and mysterious text to life.
State-of-the-art computer generated graphics will recreabinte this mysterious and exotic world. Follow the dramatized journey of a soul from death In Tibet, the "art of dying" is nothing less than the art of living.
The New York Times. Oxford University Press, As such it has received scrupulous attention by scholars and Egyptologists to ensure, as much as possible, an accurate translation and scholarly interpretation of the this most important primary historical docu An Excellent View of One of the Earliest Conceptions of the After Life The Papyrus of Ani from the XXVII Dynasty BC is one of the earliest, most completed, and most beautifully illuminated exemplars of papyri known as a " Book of the Dead", or guide to the Egyptian After Life.
As such it has received scrupulous attention by scholars and Egyptologists to ensure, as much as possible, an accurate translation and scholarly interpretation of the this most important primary historical document.
I strongly urge all readers with a general interest in the history of the world of the Ancients and in particular those with an interest in Ancient Egypt to read this text.
I could not read this book on my Kindle. It looked like scanned images of text. They were blurry, painted with a white backdrop, and exceedingly cheap feeling.
The content was fairly drab too. I love me some Egyptian lore, but I couldn't make it past a couple of chapters before the headaches started setting in.
I had to put this one away and move on. Dec 10, Rachel rated it really liked it Shelves: Not an easy read, but goes through the entire Papyrus of Ani.
Feb 04, Mina added it Shelves: This is not my book cover: Very interesting; translation of the hieroglyphs which are printed alongside. Zac rated it it was amazing Jan 25, Nightcat rated it liked it Jan 30, Carol rated it really liked it Jun 15, Timothy Pecoraro rated it really liked it May 12, Ella rated it it was amazing Oct 16, Paul Currie rated it liked it Jan 27, Jason rated it it was ok Mar 14, During the 19th dynasty in particular, the vignettes tended to be lavish, sometimes at the expense of the surrounding text.
In the Third Intermediate Period , the Book of the Dead started to appear in hieratic script, as well as in the traditional hieroglyphics. The hieratic scrolls were a cheaper version, lacking illustration apart from a single vignette at the beginning, and were produced on smaller papyri.
At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat. During the 25th and 26th dynasties , the Book of the Dead was updated, revised and standardised.
Spells were consistently ordered and numbered for the first time. This standardised version is known today as the 'Saite recension', after the Saite 26th dynasty.
In the Late period and Ptolemaic period , the Book of the Dead remained based on the Saite recension, though increasingly abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period.
The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BCE, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times.
The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations. Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean "mouth," "speech," "spell," "utterance," "incantation," or "a chapter of a book.
At present, some spells are known,  though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes. Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles.
Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual. Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs.
The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.
The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation;  there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.
Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful.
Written words conveyed the full force of a spell. The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life.
A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.
Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value. Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available.
For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure. The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife.
The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area. One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence.
Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects;  the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.
The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense.
In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied. It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.
An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.
In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat. There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.
There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.
While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required.
For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti. These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Dead , requiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner's duty in the afterlife.Manuel neuer spruch der Kulturlandschaft und Siedlungsgeschichte. Warehouse Deals Reduzierte B-Ware. Landesgeschichtliche Quellen und Materialien. Archiv Baumeister im Kunstmuseum Stuttgart. I moorhuhn de give it a five star sizzling hot ingyenes letoltes because it is difficult reading and I believe only for the very serious reader. Geld verdienen mit Amazon. Baden zu Beginn der Weimarer Republik. Markgraf Karl Wilhelm von Baden-Durlach. It is however a good travel companion for reading on my Kindle application of my laptop because I previously had expensive slotmaschinen kostenlos downloaden that were too bulky or suffered damage and loss. Das Humpis-Quartier in Ravensburg. Film - Willi Baumeister. With the heiroglyphics included in the transliteration, one is also able to study heiroglyphic translation as one reads the various chapters.
According to the Egyptian belief man consisted of a body xa , a soul ba , an intelligence xu , and ka , The word ka means "image," the Greek ei?
The ka seems to have been the "ghost," as we should say, of a man, and it has been defined as his abstract personality, to which, after death, the Egyptians gave a material form.
It was a subordinate part of the human being during life, but after death it became active; and to it the offerings brought to the tomb by the relatives of the dead were dedicated.
It was believed that it returned to the body and had a share in its re-vivification. As the sun sets in the west and rises again in the cast, so the dead man is laid in his tomb on the western bank of the Nile, and after being acquitted in the Hall of judgment, proceeds to the east to begin a new existence.
On this word, see Naville, Litanie du Soleil , p. Tatunen, or Tenen was, like Seb with whom he was identified, the god of the earth; his name is often joined to that of Ptah, and he is then described as the creator of gods and men, and the maker of the egg of the sun and of the moon.
See Lanzone, Dizionario , p. This god was, in one aspect, a destroyer of created things; compare , Naville, op. The darkness personified was Apep, Nak, etc.
The House of the Prince keepeth festival, and the sound of those who rejoice is in the 12 mighty dwelling.
The gods are glad [when] they see Ra in his rising; his beams flood the world with light. May I see Horus in charge of the rudder, with Thoth. May he grant unto the ka of Osiris Ani to behold the disk of the Sun and to see the Moon-god without ceasing, every day; and may my soul 18 come forth and walk hither and thither and whithersoever it pleaseth.
May my name be proclaimed when it is found upon the board of the table of 22 offerings; may offerings be made unto me in my 24 presence, even as they are made unto the followers of Horus; may there be prepared for me a seat in the boat of the Sun on the day of the going forth of the 26 god; and may I be received into the presence of Osiris in the land 28 of triumph!
The following versions of this chapter are taken from: Naville, Todtenbuch , Bd. British Museum Papyrus No. Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, 2 who saith: Thou risest, thou risest, thou Ra shinest, 3 thou shinest, at dawn of day.
Thou art crowned like unto the king of the gods, and the goddess Shuti doeth homage unto thee. Thou goest forth over the upper air and thy heart is filled with gladness.
Ra rejoiceth, Ra rejoiceth. Thy sacred boat advanceth in peace. Thy foe hath been cast down and his 7 head hath been cut off; the heart of the Lady of life rejoiceth in that the enemy of her lord hath been overthrown.
The mariners of Ra have content of heart and Annu rejoiceth. Grant that I may be like unto one of those who are thy favoured 10 ones [among the followers] of the great god.
May my name be proclaimed, may it be found, may it be lastingly renewed with. Thou 19 wakest up in beauty at the dawn, when the company of the gods and mortals sing songs of joy unto thee; hymns of praise are offered unto thee at eventide.
The 20 starry deities also adore thee. O thou firstborn, who dost lie without movement, 21 arise; thy mother showeth loving kindness unto thee every day.
Ra liveth and the fiend Nak is dead; thou dost endure for ever, and the 22 fiend hath fallen. The goddess Nehebka is in 23 the atet boat; the sacred boat rejoiceth.
Thy heart is glad and thy brow is wreathed with the twin serpents. Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, triumphant, who saith: The beings who minister unto Osiris cherish him as King of the North and of the South, the beautiful and beloved man-child.
When 4 he riseth, mortals live. The nations rejoice in him, and the Spirits of Annu sing unto him songs of joy. The Spirits of the towns of Pe and Nekhen 5 exalt him, the apes of dawn adore him, and all beasts and cattle praise 6 him with one accord.
The goddess Seba overthroweth thine enemies, therefore rejoice 7 within thy boat; and thy mariners are content thereat. Hotepeschaus is the divine Flame which is assigned to Osiris for burn- ing the souls of his adversaries.
I know the names of the Seven Glorious ones who follow the Coffined one, and whose places Anubis hath fixed on the day of ' Come thou hither.
It is Osiris, as he cometh to Tattu, and there flndeth the soul of Ra ; each embraceth the other, and becometh Two Souls.
I am the great Cat, who frequenteth the Persea tree in Helio- polis, on that night of battle wherein is effected the defeat of the Sebau, and that day upon which the adversaries of the Inviolate god 16 are exterminated.
It is Ea himself. He is the likeness Maau of that which he hath created, and his name became that of Cat Maau. There was conflict in the entire universe, in heaven and upon the earth.
He who frequenteth the Persea tree is he who regulateth the children of Failure, and that which they do. O Ra, in thine Egg, who risest up in thine orb, and shinest from thine Horizon, and swimmest over the firmament without a peer, and sailest over the sky ; whose mouth sendeth forth breezes of flame, lightening up the Two Earths with thy glories, do thou deliver JV from that god whose attributes are hidden, whose eye- brows are as the arms of the Balance upon that day when outrage is brought to account, and each wrong is tied up to its separate block of settlement.
The god whose eyebrows are as the arms of the Balance is "he who lifteth up his arm. The "Wardens of Osiris are the Powers who keep off the forces of the adversaries of Bd..
May your knives not get hold of me ; may I not fall into your shambles, for I know your names ; my course upon earth is with Ra and my fair goal is with Osiris.
Let not your offerings be in my dis- favour, oh ye gods upon your altars! I am one of those who follow the Master, a keeper of the writ of Chepera.
One seeth him not. This god whose face is that of a hound and whose skint is that of a man: Eternal Devourer is his name.
It is Osiris to whom was ordained the Leadership among the gods, upon that day when the Two Earths were united before the Inviolate god.
The junction of the Two Earths is the head of the coffin of Osiris [whose father is Rat] the beneficent Soul in Sutenhunen, the giver of food and the destroyer of wrong, who hath determined the paths of eternity.
It is Ka himself. Deliver me from that god who seizeth upon souls, who con- sumeth all filth and corruption in the darkness or in the light: It is that of Queen Mentuhotep.
J An interpolation in the text of Horhotep. Oh Chepera, who are in the midst of thy bark and whose body is the cycle of the gods for ever ; deliver me from those inquisitorial Wardens to whom the Inviolate god, of Glorious Attributes, hath given guard over his adversaries, and the infliction of slaughter in the place of annihilation, from whose guard there is no escape.
May I not fall under your knives, may I not sit within your dungeons, may I not come to your places of extermination, may I not fall into your pits ; may there be done to me none of those things which the gods abominate ; for I have passed through the place of purification in the middle of the Meskat, for which are given the Mesit and the Tehenit cakes in Tanenit.
Tanenit is the resting place of Osiris. Horus offereth purification and Sut giveth might, and conversely. I have come upon this earth and with my two feet taken posses- sion.
I am Tmu and I come from my own Place. Back, oh Lion with dazzling mouth, and with head bent forwards, retreating before me and my might.
I am Isis and thou findest me as I drop upon my face the hair which falleth loosely on my brow. I was conceived by Isis and begotten by Nephthys.
Isis destroyeth what in me is wrong, and Nephthys loppeth off that which is rebellious. Dread cometh in my train and Might is in my hands.
Number- less are the hands who cling fast to me. The dead ones and the living come to me. I defeat the clients of mine adversaries, and spoil those whose hands are darkened.
I have made an agreeable alliance. I have created the in- habitants of Cher-abat and those of Heliopolis.
I avenge every god against his oppressor, at whom I shoot my arrows when he appeareth. I live according to my will. I am Uat'it, the Fiery one.
The Lion with dazzhng mouth and with head bent forwards is the Phallus of Osiris [otherwise of Ra]. And I who drop the hair which hath loosely fallen upon my Ijrow— I am Isis, when she concealeth herself; she hath let fall her hair over herself.
Uat'it the Fiery is the Eye of Ra. They who mount up against me, woe to them, they are the associates of Sut as they approach.
The seventeenth chapter is one of the most remarkable in the whole collection, and it has been preserved from times previous to the Xllth dynasty.
The very earliest monuments which have preserved it have handed it down accompanied with scholia and other commentaries interpolated into the text.
Some of the monu- ments enable us to some extent to divide the original text from the additions, in consequence of the latter being written in red.
But there is really only one text where the additions are suppressed, and which therefore offers the most ancient form, as far as we know it, of the chapter.
This is the copy on the wall of the tomb of Horhotep. The sarcophagus itself of Horhotep contains a copy of the text along with the additions.
The chapter must already at the time have been of the most venerable antiquity. Besides these two copies of the chapter we have those from the sarcophagi of Hora and Sit-Bastit published, like those of Horhotep, by M.
The British Museum has Sir Gardner Wilkinson's copy of the texts inscribed on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep of the Xlth dynasty, and also a fragment a of the coffin of a prince named Hornefru.
Here then we have an abundance of witnesses of the best period. They unfortunately do not agree.
The differences however are chiefly in the scholia. Even when the explanations of the text are identical, the form differs. These words were evidently additions not merely to the text but to the scholia.
The text of the chapter grew more and more obscure to readers, and the explanations hitherto given were so unsatisfactory as to call for others.
The texts of the manuscripts of the new empire furnish a good deal of fresh matter, much of which is extremely ancient, though the proof of this is unfortunately lost through the disastrous condition of literature in the period preceding the XVIIIth dynasty.
The XVIIIth dynasty and its immediate successors inherited but did not invent the new form of the Book of the Dead, with its succession of vignettes, which however differing in detail bear the stamp of a common traditional teaching.
The manuscripts of a later period bear witness, with reference to this as well as to other chapters, to a recension of an authoritative kind.
The text becomes more certain though perhaps not either more true or more intelligible, and the notes and explanations have here reached their fullest extent.
It would take an entire volume to give the translations of all the forms the chapter has assumed.
It must be sufficient here to give the earliest forms known to us of the text and of the first commentaries. These are printed in characters which show the difference between text and later additions ; all of which, it must be remembered, are of extreme antiquity — some two thousand years before any probable date of Moses.
Explanations or other interesting matter occurring in the manu- scripts of the later Empire will be referred to in the notes.
The title in the early copies is the simple one here heading the chapter. It would be difficult for us to imagine that the very remarkable opening of the chapter is an addition.
Yet it is unknown to the primitive recension on the walls of Horhotep's tomb, though found everywhere else.
The texts however which contain it do not agree. As the god who closes and who opens is one and the same, ' I am but One,' is a very natural ending of the sentence, and for its sense the whole may appeal to classical, and higher than classical, authority.
It is absolutely necessary when dealing with mythology to look to physical rather than to metaphysical meanings.
X The last form of the chapter as found in the hieratic papyrus T. The raising of the Sky by Shu is very frequently represented in pictures. Seb the Earth and Nut the Sky have been sleeping in each other's arms during the night ; Shu Daylight at sunrise parts them, and the sky is seen to be raised high above the earth.
The mystical Chemennu, however, is alone referred to in this place. The word itself means Eight, and Lepsius sees here a reference to eight elementary deities.
We must remem- ber that the passage itself is an interpolation, of which there is no trace in the older texts.
This mythological expression here found in an interpolated passage is met later on in a genuine portion of the older text.
It would be impossible to find a more emphatic assertion of the doctrine of Nomina Numina ; and that more than years before Christ.
The Names of Ra, the Sun-god, are said, when taken together, to compose 'the cycle of the gods. In glaring con- tradiction to the whole text, a later note states that the resistless god is "the Water, which is Nu"; that is Heaven.
They might mean that the god was alone ' in heaven,' or that he was alone ' as Heaven. But the mention of 'Water' in the scholionhas nothing whatever to do with the doctrine of Thales, and to suppose that it has implies a confusion between two very different realms of human thought.
The papyrus of Nebseni and all the subsequent texts give the explanation that Yesterday means Osiris, and the Morrow means Ra.
And the vignette in the papyrus of Ani gives the name of Yesterday to one of the Lions and of Morrow to the other. Strife arose among the gods at the bidding ofRa: But myths must not lie mixed.
One must not be considered as the explanation of another. And of all this collision the first cause, the origin of all activity and motion, is the Sun.
The reason for connecting this bird with the Sun- god has to be sought m the etymology of its name.
Naville's edition, II, pi. But I already in Zeitschr. No one from merely looking at M. Note that in this scholion Horus, ' the avenger of his father,' calls his father not Osiris but Tmu.
In the more recent texts there are many interpretations of the two Feathers. One is " his two Eyes are the Feathers.
The more recent recensions thus answer the question about the lakes. See the picture of this gate on the Vignette, which shows the Sun-god passing through.
One of the later explanations is that from this gate Shu raised up Heaven. Another is that it was the gate of the Tuat.
Hu and Sau, sons of Tmu, and his companions in the Solar bark, are, like so many other gods, Solar appellatives. These names are not personifications of the senses but, as in all cases, appellatives expressing attributes.
See Note 2 on Chapter 4. But the Egyptian scribe gives a different etymological explanation. The creatures of Ra were made after his likeness.
The Egyptians from the very first delighted in this play upon words. The etymology of the name is indi- cated in the Pyramid texts.
The later scholia add that the Devourer comes from the 'basin of Punit,' the Red sea. Maspero has recently given P.
Mehurit is explained in the ancient scholion as 'the Eye,' but it is really the Sky, from which the Sun is born daily. The sign of plurality after Mehurit if it means anything only indicates the daily succession of the skies whence Ra is born.
These stars never set, but are perpetually revolving round the Pole. It is therefore evidently with the Polar Star that we must identify the coffin of Osiris.
The names of the Seven Glorious ones vary according to the different authorites. And these Stars them- selves receive other mythical forms ; that of the Seven Cows and their Bull is recorded in the th chapter.
The papyri add the important note that the " day of Come thou hither "! The god is called Ra-Tmu-Neberi' er in the great Harris papyrus, 15, 3. He is a terrible god from whom the deceased prays in ch.
His name impHes 'one who searches or probes thoroughly,' as a digger or miner. And such are his functions at the judgment of the dead. In the 72nd chapter the deceased prays that he may not perish at the Mesqat.
It is mentioned in the Harris Magical papyrus 6, 3 simply as a heavenly thing. In the more recent scholia the purifier is said to be Anubis, who is behind the chest containing the remains of Osiris.
After the scholion which has just been translated the early texts pass on to the i8th chapter. For the rest of the chapter we are compelled to follow the texts of the papyri.
The character of this portion differs considerably from the former part, and is clearly an addition. The speakers rapidly succeed each other.
Cher-abat and Heliopolis like all the localities here mentioned are in heaven not upon earth. Uat'it is literally 'the pale one,' a name of the Dawn.
The last line of the chapter has sufifered in all the best papyri. In the papyrus of Ani the chapter is unfinished.
The later papyri end the chapter by saying that " it has been granted to the speaker by those who are in Tattu to destroy by fire the souls of his adversaries.
I bring to you N void of offence towards any of the gods, grant that he may be with you daily. Glory to Osiris, Lord of Restau, and to the great gods who are in the World below.
Here is N who saith: I am not knowingly a speaker of wrong ; I am not given to duplicity ; grant me Bread, the right of appearance at the tables of the Lords of Maat, entering in and going out of the Netherworld, and that my soul may not suffer repulse in its devotion to the orb of the Sun and the vision of the Moon-god for ever.
O Papyrus of Ani. Naville, " Book of the Dead. Papyrus du Louvre, Here is A'' and he saith: Grant me an abiding place in the Netherworld by the Lords of Maat, my permanent allotment in the Sechit-hotepu, and the receiving of cakes before thee.
The Great Circle of gods in Heliopolis is of Tmu, Shu and Tefnut, and the Sebau who were defeated and extinguished were the associates of Sut on the renewal of his assault.
Oh Thoth who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let A'' be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries before the Great Circle of gods in Tattu, on the Night wherein the Tat is set up in Tattu.
They are behind Osiris as bindings of his raiment. The Eve's Provender is the dawn upon the Cofifin of Osiris. Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let iVbe made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods in Pu and Tepu, 6 on that Night of erecting the flag-staffs of Horus, and of establishing him as heir of his Father's property.
The Great Circle of gods in Pu and Tepu is of Horus, Isis, Emsta, Hapi ; and the pillars of Horus are erected when Horus saith to those who follow him "let the flag-staffs be erected there.
Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let N be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods in Abydos on the night of Hakra, 7 when the evil dead are parted off, when the glorious ones are rightly judged, and joy goeth its round in Thinis.
Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let N be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods on the Highway of the Damned, 8 upon the Night when judgment is passed upon those who are no more.
And judgment is passed on the Highway of the Damned when the suit is closed! Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries.
The later recensions read. The Great Circle of gods at the Great Hoeing in Tattu, 9 when the associates of Sut arrive, and take the forms of goats, slay them before the gods there, while their blood runneth down ; and this is done according to the judgment of those gods who are in Tattu.
Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let TV be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods in An-arer-ef on the Night of Hiding him who is Supreme in Attributes.
Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let JV be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries before the Great Circle of gods in Restau on the Night when Anubis lieth 10 with his hands upon the objects behind Osiris, when Osiris is made to triumph over his adversaries.
The heart of Horus rejoiceth, the heart of Osiris is glad and the two Parts of Heaven are satisfied when Thoth effecteth the triumph of IV before these ten Great Circles about Ra and about Osiris and the Circles of gods attached to every god and every goddess before the Inviolate god.
All his adversaries are destroyed and all that was wrong in him is also destroyed. The eighteenth chapter is one of those found in the earhest copies of the Book of the Dead, on the wooden coffins of the ' Old ' and ' Middle' Empires ; the most complete ancient copy being on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep of the eleventh dynasty.
It consists of a Litany addressed to Thoth, who is invoked for securing the triumph of the departed against his adversaries in presence of the gods of certain localities.
Each petition has reference to some mythological event, and is supplemented by the enumeration of the gods constituting the divine company presiding at the locality named, and sometimes by a short comment on the myth referred to.
The order of petitions is somewhat different in the later recen- sions, and the text has suffered other alterations. Copies of this chapter are extremely numerous, particularly in the later periods.
The chapter really begins with the petitions to Thoth. The preceding portion is, as far as I know, found only in the Papyrus of Ani. But as the vignette which belongs to this portion has a place in the great Leyden Papyrus of Kenna, the text cannot have been confined to a single manuscript.
It is particularly valuable as illustrative of the ritual use of portions of the Book of the Dead. Both names are titles of Horus, and it is the usual thing for Egyptian priests to bear divine titles ; their ritual observances being dramatic and symbolical representations of the actions of the gods.
An-matit-ef literally signifies ' column support of his mother. This word occurs already in the Pyramid Texts under the form , ,q. See Pepi I, , which M.
Maspero renders ' la Grande E? But though the lexicons give dux and priticeps as meanings of the Coptic word, these are but secondary applications of head.
We have to enquire why X A3X means head, or top of the head. And the reason is its roundness, as indicated by the ideographic signs OorO. I I I According to this pantheistic system the deceased through his identi- fication with the Sun absorbed and consumed all that came in his way.
And this is expressed in somewhat brutal style. This III word which means ' things ' has, like the Latin res, a wide applica- tion.
On the last day of the month of Choiak the great solemnity of setting up the Tat W as the symbol of Osiris was observed down to the latest periods.
The tablets of Pasherenptah, high priest of Ptah at Memphis, speak of this great dignitarj' as the king's second or deputy in ' Raising the Tat.
The procession is described as marching four times round the sanctuary of Ptah-Seker-Osiris. On Horus in the Dark, or Blindness, or Invisibility.
The vignette is given by M. Naville from the tracing taken by Lepsius of the now lost Papyrus Busca. It represents ' the Great Hoeing in Tattu.
Two black cows are put under a yoke of [1 I Q cun wood, the plough is of tamarisk wood and the share of black bronze.
The plougher goes behind, with a cow led by a halter. Barley is sown at one end, spelt at the other, and flax between the two.
And the Cher-heb in chief recites the Office for the Sowing of the Field. The older texts have n. Chapter of the Crown of Triumph.
Thy Father Tmu hath prepared for thee this beautiful Crown of Triumph, the living diadem which the gods love, that thou mayest live for ever.
Thy Father Seb hath decreed that thou should be his heir, and be heralded as Triumphant, Horus son of Isis and son of Osiris, upon the throne of thy Father Ra, through the defeat of thine adversaries.
He hath decreed for thee the Two Earths, absolutely and without condition i. And so hath Atmu decreed, and the Cycle of the gods hath repeated the glorious act of the triumph of Horus the son of Isis and the son of Osiris foi ever and ever.
Horus repeateth the proclamation four times. All the adversaries fall and are overthrown and slaughtered. N repeateth the proclamation four times, and all his adversaries fall and are overthrown and slaughtered.
Horus son of Isis and son of Horus repeateth an infinite number of festivals, and all his adversaries fall down, are overthrown and slaughtered.
Their abode is transferred to the slaughtering block of the East, their heads are cut away, their necks are crushed, their thighs are lopped off, they are given to the great Annihilator who resideth in the Valley 2 that they may not ever escape from under the custody of Seb.
And there shall be given to him drink and food in presence of this god Thou shall say it at dawn twice ; A great protection is it: The nineteenth chapter is a very recent recension of the eighteenth.
It derives its origin from the piactice of placing garlands or floral crowns upon the mummies. Maspero writes, " une guirlande de jolies fleurs roses de Delphinium orientate.
For farther details I must refer to an excellent paper entitled La Couronne de la Justification, by Dr. This adverbial expression is apparently con- nected with Xj]-jj.
That is they shall remain interred for ever. Let the person say this Chapter, and purify himself with water of natron, he 7vill come forth by day after death, and take all forms according to his wish, afid escape from the fire.
With un- deviating regularity for times infinite. The earliest example of this tabulated form of the chapter is found on the Berlin Sarcophagus of Mentuhotep.
Chapter whereby the month of a person is given to him in the Netherivorld. I am come to thee glori- fied and purified.
The oldest papyrus containing this chapter is that of Ani, and the translation is based upon it. But the text differs both from those written on the very ancient coffins of Pleru and Set-Bastit, copied by M.
The second paragraph seems to be spoken by the god, the first and third being from the deceased.
The text is unfortunately incomplete on both coffins. Lepsius, " Denkmaler," Abth. Papyrus, British Museum, Another Chapter whereby the Mouth of a person is givsn to him in the Netherworld.
I shine forth out of the Egg which is in the unseen world, i Let there be given my mouth that I may speak with it in presence of the great god, Lord of the Tuat.
Let not my hand be repulsed by the Divine Circle of the great god. I am Osiris, the Lord of Restau, the same who is at the head of the Staircase.
It is one of those copied by Wilkinson from the coffin 2 of Queen Mentuhotep. In the Papyrus of Ani it is followed by chapter 21 as its conclusion, and both chapters are appended to chapter i, before the rubric belonging to that chapter.
The Egg in the unseen world is the globe of the Sun while yet below the horizon. It is only through a mistranslation of chapter 54, 2 that the Indian notion of a ' Mundane Egg ' has been ascribed to the Egyptians.
The 17th chapter addresses "Ra in thine Egg, who risest up in thine orb, and shinest from thine Horizon. Similar pictures are given on other sarcophagi.
The Tank of Flame. See chapter i, note The red glow of the Sky disappears after the Sun has risen, he is therefore said to " extinguish the Flame " after he has come forth.
The same notion is expressed in the myth according to which Horus strikes off the head of his mother.
Chapter 'whereby the Mouth of a fersoti is opened for him in the Netherworld. Let my mouth be given to me. Let my mouth be opened by Ptah with that instrument of steel 2 wherewith he openeth the mouths of the gods.
I am Sechit 3 Uat'it who sitteth on the right side of Heaven: I am Sahit encircled by the Spirits of Heliopolis. Naville and Professor Piehl, Zeitschr..
I hold with Dr. Piehl that the domain meant in this formula is Abydos, and that the god is Osiris. A description of the Ceremonies of the Opening of the Mouth as performed at the tomb will be found in the Introduction to this translation.
The name of this goddess is phonetically written 1 Siit in the Pyramid texts of Unas 1. The reading Sechemet is indefensible.
Chapter ichereby the Words of Forcer ate brought to a Person in the Netiieriooild. I am Chepera, the self-produced, on his Mother's thigh.
O thou who guidest the Bark of Ra, sound is thy rigging and free from disaster as thou passest on to the Tank of Flame. Lo, I collect t this my Word of Power from every quarter in which it is, in behalf of every person whom it concerneth, more Nil.
Lo, I collect this my Word of Power from every quarter in which it is, in behalf of every person whom it concerneth, more persistently than hounds of chase and more swiftly than the Light.
This is another of those chapters of which the antiquity is proved by the coffins of Horhotep and Queen Mentuhotep. And even in the early times to which these coffins belong it must have been extremely difficult to understand.
In the translation here given I have adhered as closely as possible to the oldest texts, but these, as the variants show, are not entirely trustworthy.
This is the usual translation, which accords with the frequent pictures of the goddess Nut, as the Sky, with the divine Scarab in the position described.
It is the geographical name of a river or canal. The names of these two animals especially of the second vary greatly in the texts.
But if we wish rightly to understand the sense of the chapter, we must bear in mind that it is not the animals themselves that are meant, but the characteristics implied by the names of the animals.
We must look to the context. It is of a god speaking of himself and of his attributes. He is proud of them, and certainly does not wish them to be taken in a bad sense.
Nor is it necessary that we should do so. We have only to remember what we learnt at school. Livy uses the term ferox, in the same sense as Cicero. What we have to understand of the Egyptian expression is, ' mettlesome, of high, unbridled spirit.
This is often used in a bad sense, when spoken of the enemy ; but it merely implies tenacity, pertinacity, obstinacy, which are, of course, very bad things in opposition, but in themselves virtues of a high order.
The notion was also current in the Greek world. The writer of the Philosophiimena VI, 22 speaks of 1] vf. It was from this source that the early Gnostic Valentinus borrowed this item of his system.
Chapter ivhereby a person remetfibereth his name in the Netherworld. Let my name be given to me in the Great House. Let me remember my name in the House of Flame i on the Night wherein the Years are counted and the Months are reckoned, one by one.
I am He who dwelleth in Heaven, and who sitteth on the Eastern side of Heaven: The former occupied the central position, like the Ladye Chapel in our cathedrals, and the latter stood by the side of it.
Whole Heart t mine to me, in the place of Whole Hearts! Let me have my Heart that it may rest within me ; but 2 I shall feed upon the food of Osiris, on the eastern side of the mead of amaranthine flowers.
I go down into the bark wherein thou art. Be there given to me my mouth wherewith to speak, and my feet for walking ; and let me have my arms wherewith to overthrow my adversaries.
Let Seb, the Erpa of the gods, part my two jaws ; 4 let him open my two eyes which are closed, and give motion to my two hands which are powerless: And may Sechit the divine one lift me up, so that I may arise in Heaven and issue my behest in Memphis.
I am in possession of my Heart, I am possession of my Whole Heart, I am possession of my arms and I have possession of my legs.
And from various uses of the word it appears to denote not merely the heart, but the heart with all that is attached to it, especially the lungs which embrace it.
But perhaps the best argument may be found in the Vignettes of chapter 28, where the two lungs are actually drawn as in the hieratic papyrus PL 2 published by Sir Charles Nicholson.
In others as Leyden, T. The sense is not much affected by this omission. The 7nead of attiaranihine flowers. In several copies of this chapter the name of the plant is followed by the geographical determinative 'j'T' , which is really implied in the context.
Was this mythological 'mead of amaranth' suggested by the Oasis and its vegetation? This sentence is a repetition in other words of the preceding one.
On the title Erpd, see Tratis. Erpd is one of those titles which cannot be translated without perverting the sense of the original.
In Carin h LcJicrcns we find "la coraille del cuers. This passage is a very frequent formula not only in the Book of the Dead, as the papyri give it, but in other texts of the same nature; see, e.
The next passage included in [ ] is an addition to the original text. It occurs however in some excellent MSS. Chapter whereby the Heart of a person is not taken from him in the Netherworld.
O ye gods who seize upon Hearts, and who pluck out the Whole Heart ; and whose hands fashion anew the Heart of a person accord- ing to what he hath done ; lo now, let that be forgiven to him by you.
Let not my Heart be torn from me by your fingers. Let not my Heart be fashioned anew according to all the evil things said against me.
For this Heartof mine is the Heartof the god of mighty names 2 , of the great god whose words are in his members, and who giveth free course to his Heart which is within him.
Heart of mine ; I am in possession of thee, I am thy master, and thou art by me ; fall not away from me ; I am the dictator to whom thou shalt obey in the Netherworld.
There is a great difference here as in so many other places between the MSS. Naville pointed out the fact that in some of the oldest MSS.
It now appears that the particle is not found in any of the older MSS. The god of mighty names is Thoth, and the later texts read " For this is the Heart of the great god who is in Hermopolis.
According to another reading new, fresh, young, vigorous. Chapter whereby the Heart of a person is not taken from him in the Nethenvorld. Let not this Whole Heart of mine be torn from me by the divine Champions 2 in Heliopolis!
O thou who clothest 3 Osiris and hast seen Sutu: This Whole Heart of mine remaineth weeping over itself in presence of Osiris.
Its strength proceedeth from him, it hath obtained it by prayer from him. Let not this Whole Heart of mine be torn from me.
As a common noun the word unbu means the Hawthorn or some other kind of flowering bush. We have no means of determining the exact sense of this word, which as an appellative expresses an attribute possessed both by the Sun and by the fruit, foliage, or other parts of the tree.
Such determinatives as t certainly do not denote very pugnacious qualities in the divine Champions. In the present instance we have no such help.
Some of the more recent MSS. Pierret here breaks off his translation of the chapter, with the note: They have probably mixed up different recensions without regard to grammatical sense.
The deceased addresses gods in the plural ,. The last words of the Chapter were extremely puzzling to the scribes of the later periods, who altered them in ever so many ways.
Chapter whereby the Heart of a person may fiot be taken from hi? Back thou Messenger i of thy god!
Art thou come to carry off by violence 2 this Whole Heart of mine, of the Living. The gods have regards to my offerings and fall upon their faces, all together, upon their own earth.
The papyrus of Ani is the only one of the early period in which it occurs. None of these texts is perfect.
A part of the text of Amamu has been destroyed, but there remains enough to show that Horhotep has omissions. The scribes of a later period had to exercise their ingenuity on the subject.
This plural form is a mere sign of a common noun. Another Chapter of the Heart ; upon Carnelian. It is granted to their Souls to come forth upon the Earth to do whatsoever their Genius willeth.
It is granted to the soul of the Osiris N to come forth upon the Earth to do whatsoever his Genius willeih.
These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.
If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.
There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins ,  reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".
Then the dead person's heart was weighed on a pair of scales, against the goddess Maat , who embodied truth and justice. Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name.
If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life. Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".
This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content.
The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.
For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.
A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.
They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver,  perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.
In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.
Most owners were men, and generally the vignettes included the owner's wife as well. Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman.
The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m.
The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets.
The words peret em heru , or 'coming forth by day' sometimes appear on the reverse of the outer margin, perhaps acting as a label.
Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later. The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs , most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left.
The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines — a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments.
Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus.
From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script. The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in horizontal lines across wide columns often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up.
Occasionally a hieratic Book of the Dead contains captions in hieroglyphic. The text of a Book of the Dead was written in both black and red ink, regardless of whether it was in hieroglyphic or hieratic script.
Most of the text was in black, with red ink used for the titles of spells, opening and closing sections of spells, the instructions to perform spells correctly in rituals, and also for the names of dangerous creatures such as the demon Apep.
The style and nature of the vignettes used to illustrate a Book of the Dead varies widely. Some contain lavish colour illustrations, even making use of gold leaf.
Others contain only line drawings, or one simple illustration at the opening. Book of the Dead papyri were often the work of several different scribes and artists whose work was literally pasted together.
The existence of the Book of the Dead was known as early as the Middle Ages, well before its contents could be understood. Since it was found in tombs, it was evidently a document of a religious nature, and this led to the widespread misapprehension that the Book of the Dead was the equivalent of a Bible or Qur'an.
In Karl Richard Lepsius published a translation of a manuscript dated to the Ptolemaic era and coined the name " Book of The Dead" das Todtenbuch.
He also introduced the spell numbering system which is still in use, identifying different spells. The work of E.
Wallis Budge , Birch's successor at the British Museum, is still in wide circulation — including both his hieroglyphic editions and his English translations of the Papyrus of Ani , though the latter are now considered inaccurate and out-of-date.
Allen and Raymond O. Orientverlag has released another series of related monographs, Totenbuchtexte , focused on analysis, synoptic comparison, and textual criticism.This chapter is found not only on papyri but upon innumerable scarabs. O thou beautiful Being, thou dost renew thyself in thy season in the form of the Disk within thy mother Hathor; therefore in every place every heart swelleth with joy at thy rising, for ever. Bruce Banning rated it liked it Mar 01, The Coffin Texts used a newer version of the language, new spells, and included illustrations for the first time. But myths must not lie Beste Spielothek in Steinrode finden. Chapter whereby the deceased acguireth might. Chapter of opening the Beste Spielothek in Heimberg finden by day. O ye gods who seize upon Hearts, and who pluck out the Whole Heart ; and whose hands fashion anew the Heart of a person accord- ing to what casino novolino weilheim hath done ; lo now, let that be forgiven to him by you. One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperuor modes of online casino games script. Uat'it the Fiery is the Windows 7 wie lange noch support of Ra. Seb the Earth and Nut the Sky have been sleeping in each other's arms during the night ; Shu Daylight at sunrise parts them, and the sky is seen to be raised high above the earth. The Litany here translated is that of the Turin Todtenbuch. Naville tipico live scores found it necessar ' to publish four different forms of the hymn to the rising, and three of the hymn to the setting sun. Jean rated it really liked it Jul 09, These are the outlines of Beste Spielothek in Mustair finden principal tenets of the Book of the Dead.